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 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes

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مُساهمةموضوع: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:41 am

What are modes, and how are they different to scales?

Modes are exactly like scales (a sequence of notes separated by intervals) and you can play them as individual scales, but modes are "special" as they work within the larger context of a chord scale. Think of modes as a sequence of scales that can work together as part of a larger musical framework.

Did that make sense? Don't worry, you will naturally begin to see what modes are and how they work, together and individually as scales, as you progress through this series.

Now, individually, each mode has its own flavour. What do I mean by flavour? The type of sound, feel, atmosphere, character, attitude you get when playing one of the modes. Each mode has its own tension notes that highlight particular chord tones and chord movements.

Example: one of the modes of the major scale is known for its flamenco, Spanish flavour because of the position of a particular note in its scale. Another is known for its ethereal quality.

Again, in time you will learn which mode flavours and tensions compliment certain chords and chord changes.

So, now we know what modes basically are and how they can be used, let's now start with one of the most commonly known modal systems (but by no means the only...) which is the 7 modes of the major scale.



Modes of the major scale


First, make sure you're familiar with the major scale.

The major scale has 7 tones, and each tone represents a degree of that scale - 1st (root), 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th. Now, in modal theory, each degree of the major scale marks the "start" of a new mode, with the same corresponding number.

For example, the 3rd degree of the major scale also marks the root note of the 3rd mode of that scale (see below for the numbered modes).

Play the major scale from its 3rd tone, and you will be playing the sequence of tones that make up the 3rd mode of the major scale.

However, it is only when that sequence of tones is played in context, over a sequence of chords from that same major scale key, that its modal colour shows. So let's start by getting to know each mode of the major scale individually. Take your time...

1-ionian
2-dorian
3-phrygian
4-lydian
5-mixolydian
7-locrian


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:45 am

Ionian Mode on Guitar


Before we go on to learn how to apply the Ionian mode on guitar, we need a little foundation theory. A lot of this won't make complete sense until the full picture has been painted across the guitar's fretboard and in your mind. So stick with it, read every word and listen to the audio... just don't rush yourself.
The Ionian mode is the first mode, also known simply as the major scale. It is ultimately the major scale in its natural sequence - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 with 8 being the octave (same note as 1) from which the sequence begins again. When using the Ionian mode on guitar, you'll soon realise that its natural tones/flavours are suited to major chords and certain major key progressions. More on what types of major chord Ionian compliments later. First, intervals!


Intervals of Ionian

1 W 2 W 3 H 4 W 5 W 6 W 7 H 8(1)
Hear it (A Ionian) >

If you've been through the intervals lesson, you'll know what the W and H stand for!
If we identify, for example, the 3rd note of Ionian, we should know its position in relation to the previous note (2nd) and the next (4th), and also its relationship with the root note of the scale (1st). We should also know that the final note of Ionian, the 7th, is a half step lower than the 1st.
The most effective way to learn the interval relationships is to hear them, first as audio, then in your head. No matter what key you're playing in, scales and modes will always have the same intervals, they'll just sound higher in a higher key, and lower in a... lower key.
In each of the examples below, I'm using the key of G followed by A and finally B. Don't pick up your guitar yet, just listen to the intervals. Hum along if you like (or...not). Get to know the interval sounds...
The Root-3rd interval: Click to hear >
Root-3rd is what gives Ionian its major flavour, as the 3rd in relation to the root is a major 3rd interval (2 whole steps - see diagram above). So hear how, although I change the key of the interval, the interval sound/flavour/characteristic is identical.
Root-5th interval: Click to hear >
Root-5th-4th-3rd intervals: Click to hear >
Root-3rd-5th-7th-octave intervals: Click to hear >
Hear how the 7th resolves naturally into the 1st/root octave.
Remember the octave can be labeled as the 8th, but as it's the same note as the root (1st) we'll just refer to it as the 1st. Using the octave will have a different overall effect. Just get to know the intervals in relation to the root note, as this is the foundation of identifying phrases within the Ionian scale that we will later build on to create solos.
The root defines the key you're playing the scale in, so learning the interval sounds between root and other notes in the scale across several key centers is a good exercise for the ear and brain. As we haven't started looking at different scale patterns on the fretboard for Ionian, get to know the intervals by playing just across one string. The open string would be the root note. This is exactly what we did in the guitar scales beginner lesson if you remember.


Ionian mode on guitar


OK, so we now have a good idea of the kind of sound Ionian produces, let's look at some practical ways of applying the scale across the fretboard. Starting with the "boxed" pattern:

Again, we have notes 1 to 7 mapped out in sequence, only this time across all 6 strings of the guitar, spanning 2 octaves. Moving that entire boxed pattern up and down the fretboard changes its key, and the root notes represent the key of the scale, so if the root notes lied on note A, the scale would be A Ionian or just A major.

Know where all the root notes lie on the fretboard? If not, this lesson will help.

Look at the position of the 7th note. It appears one half step (semi-tone) lower than the root/1st. Therefore, we could also add in a lower 7th note on the low E string, one fret before the lowest root note. This would be used as more of a leading tone. More on that later!

The boxed pattern is useful when you want to skip around the notes of the scale with minimal horizontal movement and is good to start with, before we break out of that box in a later lesson.

Now try the interval exercises from earlier using that boxed shape and using both octaves. Here's the finger position for the pattern (It's only a guide...)

Playing Ionian over chords


Ionian is based on the major triad - root (1st), 3rd and 5th...

Playing around with just those tones will build up the picture of a major chord, plain and simple. For now, use this B major chord backing track. That means we need to play B Ionian/major which, for the above pattern, is rooted at fret 7 on the low E string.
Naturally then, Ionian can be played over major chords.
What about the other notes?...
The 2nd and the 6th notes provide extensions to that basic major triad which incidentally creates a major pentatonic scale...

Try applying those tones over the same B major track (remember, the boxed scale above needs to be positioned at fret 7 for B) and hear how they add to the depth of the major chord.
Tip: you can also play more than one note at a time Smile

And the remaining notes?...
The 4th
The 4th note is considered a passing tone, as holding on to it for lengthy periods can sound unharmonious over a major chord (I say can because jazz has made exceptionally good use of the 4th in this context). A passing tone is one that is used merely as a bridge between two other more stable tones (such as any of the basic triad and its extensions above). So it's most often shorter or used in a hammer-on or pull-off sequence. Anything that doesn't involve it being held or resonated, basically.
The 4th does come into play more naturally on suspended chords (e.g. Bsus4), with the 3rd then becoming the passing tone if used at all.
Hear the 4th being played over a major chord >
So it doesn't sound terrible, and the 4th actually hides the 3rd tone pretty well but, due to its unresolved feeling, in most cases the 4th will be used as a passing tone, commonly resolving to the 3rd.
The Major 7th
Using the 7th creates a major 7th flavour, which means it will be compatible over major 7th chords, for example, A Ionian would be compatible with Amaj7.
But... it will not be compatible over dominant 7th chords, for example A7, as the 7th in dominant chords is a half step (semi-tone) lower than the 7th in major 7th chords (confused yet?). Therefore it would clash musically.
See, dominant 7th chords have their own related mode, which we'll be looking at later in the series, so just forget about it for now!
Remember that if the backing chord is simply a major triad, with no 7th, you will effectively have the choice to add the major 7th flavour to the music. So it's important to analyze music a little more than usual and identify the difference between the sound of a major triad, major 7th and dominant 7th chord.
Unlike the 4th, the 7th note of Ionian can be held at length over major and major 7th chords. In fact, it sounds very nice as a landing note, after changing to a major chord and "returning home".

Hear the 7th being played over a major chord >


Ionian backing tracks


Experiment with Ionian over the C major backing tracks below. Based on what we've learned in this lesson, try different interval movements and using the 4th as a passing tone. Try using different landing notes for when the chord changes back to C major.


Essential Tip!
Play in phrases. That means you accent certain notes/flavours of the scale you're playing by leading up to them in a short phrase. For example, here's me ending a phrase on the 6th of C Ionian:
Click to hear >
It's kept simple so we can focus on the notes in the scale. More on elaborate rhythm and technique some other time!
Bottom line? Experiment with different landing notes of Ionian. It creates different moods for your music.
This is covered in far more depth in the Guitar Scale Mastery Course.


As C major is the tonic/root chord of this progression, Ionian works over the other chords because they are part of the same modal scale. This will become clearer and clearer as we move on, trust me!
Just remember that C major is the main chord we're looking to highlight with Ionian below. The other chords are there to provide some movement and journey to the tracks, but C Ionian will still work over those other chords, just in a different context. You'll hear it as you play!
Download backing track 1 (slow tempo) >
Download backing track 2 (mid tempo) >
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:47 am

Dorian Mode on Guitar

Just like in the previous lesson, before we look at applying the Dorian mode on guitar, there's just a little theory to understand, so bear with me!
Dorian is the second mode of the major scale as it begins on the second note of the major scale. When using the Dorian mode on guitar, you'll hear it naturally works over minor chords and certain minor key progressions. Let's first take a look at the intervals of Dorian.


Intervals of Dorian


1 W 2 H b3 W 4 W 5 W 6 H b7 W 8(1)
Hear it (B Dorian) >
Don't know what the W's and H's mean? If so, take the intervals lesson here before you go on.
So we can see that Dorian has a flat 3rd and flat 7th.
The flat 3rd creates a minor 3rd interval between the root (1st) and 3rd note. Why do we say it's flat? Because it has been lowered from its natural position in the Ionian/major scale by a half step, the equivalent of one fret.
The flat 7th, just like the flat 3rd, is so-called because it has been lowered by a half step from its natural, major 7th position in Ionian. Everything is notated against Ionian's original positions.
Just like in the Ionian lesson, let's listen to a few key interval movements so we can get our ears accustomed to Dorian's sound.
In each of the examples below, I'm using the key of A followed by B and finally C#. You don't need to pick up your guitar yet, just get to know the interval sounds. If you want, however, you can use just a single string to map out the intervals and get to know them. For example, use the open G string and map out the half steps and whole steps along that one string.
Root-3rd-Root interval: Click to hear >
The minor 3rd is what gives Dorian its minor flavour. Hear how, although I change the key of the interval, the interval sound/flavour is identical.
Root-3rd-5th-7th-6th-4th-Root interval: Click to hear>
Dorian's use of the 6th in addition to the minor 3rd flavour gives it a unique character, which most musicians identify as a "jazz flavour". Soon, you'll be able to experiment with this 6th and see how it adds to the depth of minor chords.
As with Ionian, the root defines the key you're playing Dorian in. So, if the root note lied on note C# (C sharp), the scale would be C# Dorian.
Know where all the root notes lie on the fretboard? If not, this lesson will help.


Dorian mode on guitar


In each of these mode lessons we're first looking at the "boxed" shapes, where the scale pattern spans just 4 or 5 frets. Here's the boxed pattern for Dorian on guitar:

So there we have the 7 tones of Dorian mapped out across 6 strings, spanning over 2 octaves. This kind of boxed pattern allows us to skip around the notes of the scale without too much movement. Eventually, you'll want to break out of that box, but for now let's keep things straight forward.
See how the 7th has been moved down from its original position in Ionian/major and is now a whole step down from the root/octave.
Let's try the intervals from earlier over this boxed pattern. Use the diagram below for fingering reference.

There's a step in the pattern at the 6th interval which means you'll need to think about your finger position. For example, if you're moving from A string 4th to D string 6th, you might need to adjust the fingering above so you're not using the same finger for two consecutive notes/strings in a sequence.


Playing Dorian over chords


Dorian is based on the minor triad - root (1st), flat 3rd and 5th. Strip the Dorian boxed scale above to its minor bones and this is what we're left with...

Playing around with just those tones will build up the picture of a minor chord and can be used as a minor arpeggio when you come to use them.
All the remaining notes are simply extensions of that basic minor triad - the addition of the 4th, 6th, flat 7th and 9th. The addition of the flat 7th creates the flavour of a minor 7th chord.


With Dorian, the 6th is the only real "tension" note. You can hear this when the 6th is held over a minor chord.
Hear the 6th being held over a minor chord >
As mentioned earlier, jazz makes common use of this 6th on minor chords. The tension of the 6th is not so great that you can't hold it for lengthy periods (unlike the 4th in Ionian), but it is often used as a passing tone (a note used as a bridge between 2 stable tones in the scale).
Personally, I think the 6th can sound great as a landing note. This means you would apply the 6th when changing chord back to minor.
So the 6th has a dual personality, as both a passing tone and held tension, so you need to get to know it well and experiment with applying it in different contexts. It's up to you!


Dorian backing tracks


Experiment with Dorian over the D minor backing track below. Based on what we've learned in this lesson, try different interval movements and using the 4th as a passing tone. Try using different landing notes for when the chord changes back to C major.
First, let's get to know how each of the notes of Dorian add to a basic minor backing chord. Use the D minor backing track below to identify the sound each of the tones in Dorian produces.
Download the D minor backing track >
The real flavour of Dorian can be discovered when playing over chord changes. In the next backing track, we're going to be looking to highlight the D minor chord but this time in a larger progression with other chords.
So, at this stage, you simply identify the chord you want to highlight using Dorian, which is in this case D minor, and use the other chords as a journey between. In other words, D minor is "home" and the other chords provide some movement to enhance the return "home". Dorian can be used to add more depth and meaning to that return home.
However, in this example, D Dorian will still work over the other chords, because they are part of the same modal scale. More on this in the final lesson of this series, but for now, just focus on highlighting the D minor chord with Dorian. Lead up to it using phrases through the other chord changes. Experimenting with landing notes on D minor are what's important here.
Remember, we're in the key of D minor so we need the root note of Dorian positioned on D. On the low E string root note, that's fret 10.
Acoustic track (Dm Em Dm G7) - download >
Drum & bass track (Dm Am G7 Dm) - download >

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:48 am

Phrygian Mode on Guitar

Just like in the other mode lessons, before we learn how Phrygian works on guitar, we need to get to know Phrygian in theory. Let's begin...

Phrygian is the 3rd mode of the major scale, following Ionian (1) and Dorian (2). Therefore, Phrygian begins on the 3rd note of the major scale. This alone implies how the modes relate to each other and overlap as one scale. This will become clearer as we begin to paint the fuller modal picture.

Phrygian has a very distinct flavour, because of one note (which we'll identify in a second). As a result, many musicians see Phrygian as a natural part of flamenco music (although flamenco commonly uses alterations of Phrygian which we'll look at some other time).



Intervals of Phrygian


1 H b2 W b3 W 4 W 5 H b6 W b7 W 8(1)
Hear it (E Phrygian) >
Don't know what the W's and H's mean? If so, take the intervals lesson here before you go on.
So, just like its minor cousin Dorian, Phrygian includes a minor (flat) 3rd (as it's a minor mode) and flat 7th (another natural tone for minor chords). As these two elements of the minor modes was looked at in the Dorian lesson, I won't repeat it!

The key thing to know is, flat 3rd and flat 7th in addition to the root (1st) creates a minor 7th flavour, which are natural minor flavours (will work over minor chords). The 5th is also a natural tone in the minor 7th flavour - 1 b3 5 b7.

Now for the other tones of phrygian...

First we have the flat 2nd (b2) which is unique to this mode (unlike the other minor modes that use the 2nd in its natural, Ionian position - a whole step from the root/1st).

The flat 2nd, just like the flat 3rd or flat 7th, is so-called because it has been lowered by a semi-tone (half step or the equivalent of one fret position) from its natural position in Ionian. Ionian can be seen as the foundation scale which we modify (flatten and sharpen tones) to create different modes/scales.

The flat 2nd is mainly what gives Phrygian its flamenco and also middle eastern sound. Listen below to the unique relationship the flat 2nd has with the root (1st), as they are only a semi-tone apart. Below, I'm playing the same interval across 3 different octaves.

Root-2nd-Root interval: Click to hear >

It's no surprise, then, that this particular interval is commonly used in darker forms of music (e.g. heavy metal). Flamenco itself builds on this unique flat 2nd tension, using it as a foundation for the atmosphere of the music.

By adding in more intervals, we can get a good ear for Phrygian's signature sound, with the flat 6th being another key tension in the scale. More on how to use these notes over chords soon!

Click to hear >


Phrygian mode on guitar



So, like in the previous mode lessons, let's map out the intervals of Phrygian into a simple "boxed" pattern across the 6 strings of the guitar...



As that shape can be moved up and down the fretboard depending on which key we're playing in, the root (1) note defines the key. For example, if that root note lied on the E note, the whole scale would be E Phrygian.

If you don't know where all the main root notes lie, try this lesson.

We'll look at expanding out of this box in a later lesson.

Here's how the boxed pattern is commonly fingered...




Playing Phrygian over chords


We know from above that Phrygian is a minor mode, so how can we make the most of the tones over a minor chord or Phrygian based chord progression?

The flat 2nd

The important thing to know about the flat 2nd is that it most often works best as a passing tone. That is, a bridge between two more stable tones (e.g. the sequence could go: 1 b2 5 - b2 is the bridge between the 1st and 5th tones). Lead guitar is all about starting notes and finishing/landing notes and bridging them together into meaningful phrases.

Hold the flat 2nd over a regular minor chord and it might sound a little... harsh. This isn't so bad for flamenco or more exotic music, but only you can decide how you want it used in your music!

Take a listen to flat 2nd being held over a minor chord >

Now listen to the flat 2nd being used as a passing tone between the 4th and b7. The sequence is: 1 b2 4 b2 1 b7 1

Take a listen >

Sounds more natural doesn't it? It's getting that balance right - the flat 2nd can compliment your solo, or it can ruin it if not used carefully and knowingly.

You can also use hammer-ons to touch on the flat 2nd, before quickly pulling off back to the root (1st). The idea is to know where the more stable tones are, so you can resolve to them when needed.

Flat 6th

Treat this note just like the flat 2nd in most circumstances - a passing tone. It can be held in certain situations, but it's most often a note that needs resolving. That means it naturally leads on to a more stable tone. Below I play the flat 6th and resolve it to the 5th, which is definitely a more stable tone. This is what playing lead is all about - tension, resolution, tension, resolution etc.

Take a listen >

Removing the minor 3rd

Many musicians like to remove the minor 3rd from Phrygian altogether, because doing so puts more emphasis on the flat 2nd, and the mood it creates. Also, the minor 3rd can often sound a bit... wrong. You'll come to realise that a major 3rd actually works better in certain instances. We'll look more at this another time as it's a different mode.



Now that we've removed the minor 3rd, the modified Phrygian mode could essentially be applied over major chords. However, in that instance, a major 3rd is often used in place of the minor 3rd, creating a scale called Phrygian Dominant. More on this wonderful scale another time!

If you don't remove the minor 3rd, it's best used, like the flat 2nd and flat 6th, as a passing tone. It might sound strange that a minor mode can't make much use of the minor 3rd, but this is because Phrygian sounds more natural over a chord progression, rather than just a single chord. The progression of chords puts the scale into context.

Pentatonic option

Notice how if you strip phrygian down to just the minor essentials we looked at earlier - 1 b3 5 b7, but also keep the 4th intact, we get that familiar minor pentatonic scale:



In fact, this works over any minor mode/scale that accomodates those tones. The reason I've brought it up in a mode lesson is because you can switch between regular, 7 note scales and 5 note pentatonics to make your music more dynamic. Mix it up a little.

It's also worth noting that Phrygian works especially well over suspended chords (e.g. Asus2, Asus4). Suspended chords are where the 3rd (whether major or minor) has been replaced by another note - usually the 4th (sus4). Because suspended chords are neither major or minor, we know Phrygian will be compatible. It'll simply add that minor 3rd to create a minor sound overall. However, the minor 3rd in Phrygian will be better used as a passing tone over "sus" chords, just like the flat 2nd with most chords.

There's a suspended chord backing track below to help you clarify this.


Phrygian jam track


You don't have to get inventive at the moment. Just explore different sequences of Phrygian's intervals over the E minor backing track below and hear how each tone in the scale adds to the progression of the music. Experiment! You'll have this jam track for life (download it!), so you can keep coming back to it as you improve.

As mentioned before, using the minor 3rd can sound a bit out of place if not used properly in context, even though it's technically a minor scale, but using it as a passing tone can put it all into context and bring out that harsh, exotic sound.

As we're in the key of E, we can also play an open fingering of the scale, with the lowest root note being the open E string.

Download the E Phrygian jam track here >


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:50 am

Lydian Mode on Guitar

Lydian is the 4th mode of the major scale, after Phrygian (3), Dorian (2) and Ionian (1). Therefore, Lydian begins on the 4th note of the major scale.
Lydian is my personal favourite mode on guitar because, for one, over the right chord progression, there's not much work needed to make it sound magical. Did I mention I'm lazy? Smile
It just has a naturally mesmorising sound. Ethereal is a good word to describe it. As a result, you hear Lydian a lot in film and TV soundtracks, because certain notes in Lydian naturally draw your attention... and that's what the TV and film companies want, right?
Well I want your attention too! So let's get to know Lydian!
First, some important theory, then we'll look at the Lydian mode on guitar.



Intervals of Lydian


1 W 2 W 3 W #4 H 5 W 6 W 7 H 8(1)
Hear it (F Lydian) >
Don't know what the W's and H's mean? If so, take the intervals lesson here before you go on.
If you've been through the Ionian (1st mode) lesson, you'll see that the only difference between that and Lydian is the sharpened 4th (that's what the # symbol means). The 4th note has been sharpened 1 fret (semi-tone) from its original position in Ionian/major scale.

However, even though only one note has changed, it creates a completely unique flavour which you'll hear in a minute.

So, basically, similar to Ionian, Lydian is a major mode (because of the major 3rd).

Let's just first listen to some interval sequences to get an idea of Lydian's sound.

Root-5th-4th-2nd-3rd-Root: Click to hear >

That simple little sequence alone creates that unmistakable Lydian atmosphere.

Add in a bass note in the same key as the scale and it really begins to express itself...

Click to hear >


Lydian mode on guitar


Let's start out by mapping out the "boxed" scale pattern on the guitar's fretboard for the Lydian mode. This pattern spans just 4 frets and is very economical for fingering, with one finger per fret...




Remember - the root (1) defines the key of the scale, so for example, if that root note lied on the note F, it would be F Lydian, and would most often be played over an F major chord or F major key progression - more on playing over chords later (with free jam track!).

If you don't yet know where all the main root notes lie, try this lesson.
Later on in this mode series, we'll look at how to expand out of that box and use more of the fretboard.
For now, though, here's the suggest fingering for Lydian's boxed pattern.

Playing Lydian over chords


We know from the Ionian lesson that a scale/mode that includes the root (1), 3rd (3) and 5th (5) creates a major triad. This means that the scale in question will be a major scale and therefore will be "compatible" over major chords and major chord progressions!

Sounds simple, and it is really, but the position of the 7th defines which type of major chord is compatible - dominant 7th, or major 7th?

The 7th in Lydian is in the major 7th position (look at the intervals above - that's 1 semi-tone/fret down from the root). Therefore Lydian, just like Ionian, will work over major 7th chords.

So how does the #4 affect playing over major chords? Well, it doesn't require any special treatment. The beauty of the #4 in Lydian is it can be held over the major chord without sounding too harsh.

Take a listen to the #4 being held over a major chord >

...and there's that powerful, ethereal sound. Use it wisely. Don't over use it. Resolving from the 4th to a more stable tone most often works best. For example, the #4 is commonly resolved to the 3rd...

Take a listen >

The other notes of Lydian will just sound the same as Ionian, but regularly including that #4 gives it that Lydian edge!


Lydian jam track


Ok, so we have now been fully acquainted with Lydian and its signature sound. Let's put this to practical use over a jam track designed for this mode/scale.

Lydian, like any mode, can work as an individual scale over an individual chord. But it can also work over a modal chord progression (more on this later in the series), because modes have related chord scales.

So, even though the below jam track moves between two chords, Lydian will still be the primary mode used because the chords I have chosen fit within the modal scale (which, again, don't worry about right now).

As the below track is in the key of F major, you'll be playing F Lydian over it. Below are the diagrams showing where to position the "boxed" scale pattern for that particular key (rooted at fret 13 / fret 1).

Later in the series, we'll look at how to expand out of those restrictive boxes. For now, just focus on using different phrases from within Lydian and experiment with different starting and ending notes for those mini-phrases. You'll hear what sounds good, and what sounds crap!

F Lydian jam track >

Download it. Spend time with it. Build on your good ideas, ditch the bad ideas. Enjoy it!

F Lydian - boxed scale patterns


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عدد الرسائل : 250
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تاريخ التسجيل : 30/08/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:51 am

Mixolydian Mode on Guitar


If you've been going through the guitar modes series, you'll hopefully be getting used to the lesson structure, so I'll use the same for Mixolydian if that's ok with you! We'll start with the theory, then we'll look at the Mixolydian mode on guitar, then we'll get a chance to experiment with it over a jam track.

Mixolydian is the 5th mode of the major scale, following Lydian (4), Phrygian (3), Dorian (2) and Ionian (1). Therefore, Mixolydian begins on the 5th note of the major scale. Firstly, I just want to move your attention away from the peculiarity of the name of these modes. You can learn all about their origins on sites like wikipedia. For now, let's just get to know the sound of Mixolydian.


Intervals of Mixolydian


1 W 2 W 3 H 4 W 5 W 6 H b7 W 8(1)
Hear it (G Mixolydian) >
Don't know what the W's and H's mean? If so, take the intervals lesson here before you go on.
Look at the intervals above - seem familiar? Mixolydian is exactly the same as Ionian, except for one note - the 7th. Ionian includes the 7th in its natural position (a semitone/half step below the root/1st), whereas Mixolydian has flattened that 7th one semitone, creating a flat 7th.

The proper name for that altered 7th position is dominant 7th. Don't worry about what the word dominant means for now. It will become clear in time.

So if you've been through that initial Ionian mode lesson, there's not much more to learn, apart from how that new 7th position changes the flavour of the scale.

By using the dominant/flat 7th, you can get a very bluesy, country sound. Also, the dominant 7th is seen as a "staple" note in jazz music.

Let's hear some intervals being used, including that dominant 7th, so we can get some idea of the mode's flavour:

Root-3-5-6-7-4-3-Root interval >



Mixolydian mode on guitar


Just like in the previous mode lessons, let's first look at Mixolydian in its "boxed" pattern (which spans just 5 frets):






So depending on where that root note (1) lies, that will be the key of the scale. For example, if the root note lies on the note G, and you play the scale around that position, it would be G Mixolydian.

Later, we'll learn how to expand out of this box and use more of the fretboard for the same mode.

Let's look at the standard finger positions for this boxed pattern:






Playing Mixolydian over chords


As mentioned earlier, apart from the 7th, Mixolydian uses exactly the same tones as Ionian. Therefore, rather than me repeating a lot of what was covered in the Ionian lesson, I'll just focus on the main difference - the dominant/flat 7th.

Using the dominant 7th over major chords

First, I think it's important to make clear in your mind the difference between a major 7th (used in Ionian and Lydian) and a dominant 7th. Take a listen:

Major 7th note over major chord >

Dominant 7th note over major chord >

So by simply flattening the 7th just one fret/semitone, we create a very different atmosphere. You need to really get to know this difference, as they both work over different types of chords and will sound incompatible if you play, for example, a major 7th over a dominant 7th chord.

The nice thing about the dominant 7th is it can be held at length over a major chord without sounding too tense. However, it's most effectively used within a phrase that includes other notes from Mixolydian (for example, the interval sequence we listened to earlier).



Mixolydian jam track


Right, let's experiment with some of our own ideas over the G Mixolydian backing track below.

Play around with different phrases from Mixolydian, trying that flat 7th in different places and sequences with the other tones in the scale.

As Mixolydian is a mode, it'll work over more than one chord and, as you'll hear in the jam track, I use 3 chords as part of that Mixolydian "chord scale" which will all be compatible with G Mixolydian. However, try and focus the tones of Mixolydian on that initial G major chord, as it's the key centre of the chord progression. The other chords are like a short journey away from that tonic (or "home") G chord.

Try skipping across the strings rather than just playing it in sequence from 1 to 7. Your ear will eventually pick up which phrases compliment the chord/progression most effectively. Think about starting notes and landing/finishing notes for your mini-phrases. I know - a lot to think about! Just give it your time and patience.

Enjoy!

Download the G Mixolydian jam track here >


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maryatchi
مشرف منتدى كوردات ونوتات القيتار


عدد الرسائل : 250
العمر : 35
تاريخ التسجيل : 30/08/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:52 am

Aeolian Mode on Guitar

Aeolian is the 6th mode of the major scale, following Mixolydian (5), Lydian (4), Phrygian (3), Dorian (2) and Ionian (1). Therefore, Aeolian begins on the 6th note of the major scale.

When talked about in a non-modal context, Aeolian is simply known as the natural minor scale. Why "natural"? Good question! This helps us distinguish it from other minor scales (e.g. harmonic and melodic minor). Don't worry about those right now.

Just like the other modes, Aeolian has it's own unique flavour and is probably the most commonly used minor scale/mode in western pop and rock music.

Let's get to know it...


Intervals of Aeolian


1 W 2 H b3 W 4 W 5 H b6 W b7 W 8(1)
Hear it (A Aeolian) >
Don't know what the W's and H's mean? If so, take the intervals lesson here before you go on.
From the previous minor mode lessons (Phrygian and Dorian), you should be familiar with the significance of the flat 3rd (b3), also known as the minor 3rd. This makes Aeolian a minor mode, as the basic minor triad (also used to create minor chords) is: 1 b3 5.

You should also know how the flat 7th is a natural tone used in the minor modes.

We learned that the flat 6th was part of Phrygian (another minor mode), but because the rest of Aeolian is slightly different to Phrygian, that flat 6th will paint a rather different picture, when used among the other notes in the scale.

Listen to the Aeolian interval sequence below, which makes use of its key tones, to introduce you to its "flavour":

2-b3-1-b6-b7-4-5-1-b3-4-2-b7-1 interval sequence >



Aeolian mode on guitar


As with the previous lessons, let's first look at Aeolian mode in its boxed scale pattern:






Later in the series, we'll look at how to expand out of that box and use more of the guitar's fretboard to play Aeolian. This will free up your finger movements. For now though, just get to know where each of Aeolian's tones lie within that space of 5 frets.

See how it spans 3 root notes, so you effectively have 3 octaves to experiment with.

What about finger positions?



Watch out for that little step in the pattern on the G string! You may have a better way of working around that. The above diagram is just a guide!



Playing Aeolian over chords


As we found out earlier, Aeolian is a minor mode/scale (due to the minor 3rd interval) so it will work over... minor chords! As a mode, it will work over a sequence of chords, but this will become clearer when we play over the jam track later.

The key note to be careful with in Aeolian is the flat 6th. We heard it earlier as part of an interval sequence, but over a minor chord it's rather different.

See, if you hold the flat 6th over a minor chord, it won't sound too harmonious. Take a listen:

Flat 6th held over a minor chord >

It may be good for a kind of atmospheric, ominous effect, something you might hear in a horror film!

So how can we use the flat 6th more... musically? Well, it does sound good when used effectively. There are a couple of ways to accomplish this. First, you can use the flat 6th as a passing tone. This is where you skip over it as if it's a bridge between two more stable tones in the scale. For example, you could sandwich the flat 6th within this sequence - 5 1 b7 b6 5 4 5:

Take a listen >

By merging the flat 6th into a larger phrase, it puts it into context and therefore removes the unharmonious tension created if you simply hold the flat 6th over a minor chord.

You can also use the flat 6th in a hammer-on/pull-off sequence:

Take a listen >

So the main thing to remember when you're creating phrases in Aeolian is to "glance over" that flat 6th tone as part of a sequence, rather than emphasising the flat 6th as a single note.



Aeolian jam track


Ok! So here we are again with another jam track to help us experiment with our own ideas.

Just like the other modes, Aeolian can work over more than one chord, with the right chord progression.

Below I've created a backing track in the key of A minor, which is compatible with A Aeolian. The main chord to focus on is known as the tonic chord. This is, in this example, A minor. The other chords you'll hear in the progression are also compatible with A Aeolian, but the notes of Aeolian will interact differently with non-tonic chords.

So, in a nutshell, build up phrases over these chords, but focus the resolution of these phrases on that tonic A minor chord. That tonic chord will bring out the Aeolian flavour and disperse it through the progression in that context.

Just have fun with it. Don't, however, just play the Aeolian notes up or down in sequence from 1 to 7, try skipping strings, staggering the patterns of your phrases etc. but keep in mind what we've learned about that rebellious flat 6th!

Enjoy!

Download A Aeolian backing track here >

A Aeolian boxed pattern

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maryatchi
مشرف منتدى كوردات ونوتات القيتار


عدد الرسائل : 250
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: 8-درس انجليزي Guitar Modes   الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 4:55 am

Locrian Mode on Guitar

Locrian is the 7th mode of the major scale following Aeolian (6) Mixolydian (5), Lydian (4), Phrygian (3), Dorian (2) and Ionian (1). Therefore, Locrian begins on the 7th note of the major scale.

So we've come to the final mode in the series! Following this lesson, there'll be a closing lesson which will tie it all together (you'll see just how inter-connected the 7 modes are, as well as being individual scales).

So, without further ado, the Locrian mode...



Intervals of Locrian


1 H b2 W b3 W 4 H b5 W b6 W b7 W 8(1)
Hear it (B Locrian) >
Don't know what the W's and H's mean? If so, take the intervals lesson here before you go on.
In the previous lessons, we learned that modes are either major (with a major 3rd interval) or minor (with a minor/flat 3rd interval). Therefore, it looks as if Locrian is minor, due to the flat 3rd.

However, because there is also a flat 5th in the scale, that creates a diminished flavour which, in triad form, is simply 1 b3 b5 . Those are the key tones for Locrian and diminished chords. You can find out about diminished chords in the chord theory section.

The addition of that flat 5th creates a very unstable tension and, therefore, Locrian is seen by most musicians as a very unstable scale/mode that will naturally resolve to a less tense chord (e.g. a major chord) and therefore mode/scale (e.g. Ionian), in the same key.

In light of the above, the other notes of Locrian, which also appear in modes we've looked at previously, won't have their usual function. For example, the flat 2nd in Locrian won't have that flamenco/middle eastern flavour it does in Phrygian, simply because of the context Locrian is most commonly played in. More on playing Locrian over chords later.



Locrian mode on guitar


Just like the other modes, Locrian has a "boxed" pattern from the low E to high E string:






Does it seem familiar? It's almost exactly the same as the Ionian boxed pattern! We've just added that extra note on the low E string (for Locrian's root note). This is a perfect example of how modes overlap in sequence. As Locrian is the 7th mode, it is rooted just one semi-tone (1 fret) below Ionian's root in the same key.

More on these relationships in the final lesson of this series.

Let's now look at how best to finger Locrian's boxed pattern:





Playing Locrian over chords


Locrian is most commonly used to compliment diminished chords as a bridge between two more stable chords in a chord progression. See the sequence below for example:

Chord:A minor B DiminishedC major
Mode:A AeolianB LocrianC Ionian
Click to hear the chord progression >

Click to hear how Locrian compliments it >

The diminished flavour acts predominantly as a natural, passing link to the major tonic of the chord progression (which is C major in this case). It also acts as a natural, passing link to Aeolian (minor) of the same key. Locrian can compliment that movement over the diminished chord.

Tip: You'll need to think about the landing note you select from Locrian when the diminished chord resolves to the major or minor chord in the progression. Think of Locrian as the lead up to the resolving mode/chord, so the note on that resolving chord (whether major Ionian or minor Aeolian) must help put it all into context.

Here's another example of how Locrian is used to compliment a diminished chord bridge:

Chord:G Major B DiminishedA minor
Mode:G Mixolydian
B LocrianA Aeolian
Click to hear the chord progression >

Click to hear how Locrian compliments it >

The idea is, you should eventually train your ear to recognise the diminished sound, the tension and instability it creates between the more stable chords in a progression. Once you get that, you'll be able to apply Locrian in the appropriate place, and compliment that diminished sound.



Locrian jam track


So here we are. The last jam track of this series. Using similar ideas from above, I've created an alternating sequence of: B diminished followed by A minor / C major respectively. This will allow you to practise using Locrian, on the B diminished starting chord, as a lead up to the resolving major or minor related chords. This is how Locrian is commonly used.

B Locrian will still "work" over A minor and C major chords because the notes in these chords are all related, as part of the same modal scale. This is the relationship between the modes and their related chords you will come to understand. More on that later...

So remember, we start on B diminished / B Locrian. Below is the diagram which shows you where the boxed pattern for B Locrian sits (fret 7!)

Enjoy!

Download the B Locrian backing track >

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